Puma Punku (Bolivia)
Tiahuanaco, Bolivia
Angkor Wat, Cambodia
Many of the huge stones and megaliths used to make temples and structures - stones so large that even
today we'd have no way to move them - were joined together with metal clamps.. It was thought the clamps
were brought to the structures where a hole was carved for them to be placed.

Recent scans using electron microscopes reveal a different story - the metal was poured, molten, into pre-
carved indentations - meaning a portable smelter was used which could move from section to section as
needed. Since the clamps often link two huge slabs or blocks of stone, you have to wonder - if it's a mystery
how 447 tonne stones were quarried, moved and put in place - how were two done? A much more advanced
level of technology than the "main stream" ever gave to Pre-Columbian man.
Very few of the clamps have survived but analysis of those from Pre-Columbian South America show them to
be made of a very unusual alloy - 2.05% arsenic, 95.15% copper, 0.26% iron, 0.84% silicon and 1.70%
nickel. There is no source nickel anywhere in Bolivia. Also the rare alloy of nickel-bronze-arsenic requires
extremely high temperatures The Puma Punka brackets holes, when analyzed, showed platinum, a metal
which only melts at 1753 C and aluminum, which supposedly wasn't discovered and produced in quantity
until the 19th century.
The most interesting fact is that these clamps were used all over the world. How did this technique and
the knowledge find it's way to Egypt, Pre-Columbian Peru and Cambodia, thousands of years and tens of
thousands of miles apart? What is the common thread, or who was the common teacher?
Dendera, Egypt -- where this technique
was first used 4,000 years ago
Ollantaytambo, Peru
Some of the stones at the Puma
Punka site are as heavy as 500 autos